Membrane transporter proteins: a challenge for CNS drug development

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_1F4F60E254EB
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Title
Membrane transporter proteins: a challenge for CNS drug development
Journal
Dialogues Clin Neurosci
Author(s)
Girardin F.
ISSN
1294-8322 (Print)
ISSN-L
1294-8322
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2006
Volume
8
Number
3
Pages
311-21
Language
english
Notes
Girardin, Francois
eng
Review
France
Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2006;8(3):311-21.
Abstract
Drug transporters are membrane proteins present in various tissues such as the lymphocytes, intestine, liver, kidney, testis, placenta, and central nervous system. These transporters play a significant role in drug absorption and distribution to organic systems, particularly if the organs are protected by blood-organ barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier or the maternal-fetal barrier. In contrast to neurotransmitters and receptor-coupled transporters or other modes of interneuronal transmission, drug transporters are not directly involved in specific neuronal functions, but provide global protection to the central nervous system. The lack of capillary fenestration, the low pinocytic activity and the tight junctions between brain capillary and choroid plexus endothelial cells represent further gatekeepers limiting the entrance of endogenous and exogenous compounds into the central nervous system. Drug transport is a result of the concerted action of efflux and influx pumps (transporters) located both in the basolateral and apical membranes of brain capillary and choroid plexus endothelial cells. By regulating efflux and influx of endogenous or exogenous substances, the blood-brain barrier and, to a lesser extent the blood-cerebrospinal barrier in the ventricles, represents the main interface between the central nervous system and the blood, i.e., the rest of the body. As drug distribution to organs is dependent on the affinity of a substrate for a specific transport system, membrane transporter proteins are increasingly recognized as a key determinant of drug disposition. Many drug transporters are members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily or the solute-linked carrier (SLC) class. The multidrug resistance protein MDR1 (ABCB1), also called P-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance-associated proteins MRP1 (ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2), and the breast cancer-resistance protein BCRP (ABCG2) are ATP-dependent efflux transporters expressed in the blood-brain barrier They belong to the superfamily of ABC transporters, which export drugs from the intracellular to the extracellular milieu. Members of the SLC class of solute carriers include, for example, organic ion transporting peptides, organic cation transporters, and organic ion transporters. They are ATP-independent polypeptides principally expressed at the basolateral membrane of brain capillary and choroid plexus endothelial cells that also mediate drug transport through central nervous system barriers.
Keywords
Animals, Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects/physiology, Central Nervous System Agents/*pharmacology, Drug Design, Humans, Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Pharmacology, Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics/physiology
Pubmed
Create date
10/02/2021 11:32
Last modification date
11/02/2021 6:26
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