Cancer and HIV-1 Infection: Patterns of Chronic Antigen Exposure.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_19C82F6CB34E
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Cancer and HIV-1 Infection: Patterns of Chronic Antigen Exposure.
Journal
Frontiers in immunology
Author(s)
Vigano S., Bobisse S., Coukos G., Perreau M., Harari A.
ISSN
1664-3224 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1664-3224
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2020
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
11
Pages
1350
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
The main role of the human immune system is to eliminate cells presenting foreign antigens and abnormal patterns, while maintaining self-tolerance. However, when facing highly variable pathogens or antigens very similar to self-antigens, this system can fail in completely eliminating the anomalies, leading to the establishment of chronic pathologies. Prototypical examples of immune system defeat are cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. In both conditions, the immune system is persistently exposed to antigens leading to systemic inflammation, lack of generation of long-term memory and exhaustion of effector cells. This triggers a negative feedback loop where effector cells are unable to resolve the pathology and cannot be replaced due to the lack of a pool of undifferentiated, self-renewing memory T cells. In addition, in an attempt to reduce tissue damage due to chronic inflammation, antigen presenting cells and myeloid components of the immune system activate systemic regulatory and tolerogenic programs. Beside these homologies shared between cancer and HIV-1 infection, the immune system can be shaped differently depending on the type and distribution of the eliciting antigens with ultimate consequences at the phenotypic and functional level of immune exhaustion. T cell differentiation, functionality, cytotoxic potential and proliferation reserve, immune-cell polarization, upregulation of negative regulators (immune checkpoint molecules) are indeed directly linked to the quantitative and qualitative differences in priming and recalling conditions. Better understanding of distinct mechanisms and functional consequences underlying disease-specific immune cell dysfunction will contribute to further improve and personalize immunotherapy. In the present review, we describe relevant players of immune cell exhaustion in cancer and HIV-1 infection, and enumerate the best-defined hallmarks of T cell dysfunction. Moreover, we highlight shared and divergent aspects of T cell exhaustion and T cell activation to the best of current knowledge.
Keywords
HIV infection, anergy, cancer, cellular immunity, exhaustion, immune checkpoint, lymphocytes, senescence
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
11/08/2020 11:13
Last modification date
14/08/2020 6:26
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