Adaptation to Chronic Nutritional Stress Leads to Reduced Dependence on Microbiota in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>.

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State: Public
Version: Final published version
Serval ID
serval:BIB_184BA4E039A0
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Title
Adaptation to Chronic Nutritional Stress Leads to Reduced Dependence on Microbiota in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>.
Journal
mBio
Author(s)
Erkosar B., Kolly S., van der Meer J.R., Kawecki T.J.
ISSN
2150-7511 (Electronic)
Publication state
Published
Issued date
24/10/2017
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
8
Number
5
Pages
e01496-17
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> , microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated <i>Drosophila</i> populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution. Protein and polysaccharide digestion in these poor-diet-adapted populations became much less dependent on colonization with microbiota. This was accompanied by changes in expression levels of dFOXO transcription factor, a key regulator of cell growth and survival, and many of its targets. These evolutionary changes in the expression of dFOXO targets to a large degree mimic the response of the same genes to microbiota, suggesting that the evolutionary adaptation to poor diet acted on mechanisms that normally mediate the response to microbiota. Our study suggests that some metazoans have retained the evolutionary potential to adapt their physiology such that association with microbiota may become optional rather than essential. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Animals depend on gut microbiota for various metabolic tasks, particularly under conditions of nutritional stress, a relationship usually regarded as an inherent aspect of animal physiology. Here, we use experimental evolution in fly populations to show that the degree of host dependence on microbiota can substantially and rapidly change as the host population evolves in response to poor diet. Our results suggest that, although microbiota may initially greatly facilitate coping with suboptimal diets, chronic nutritional stress experienced over multiple generations leads to evolutionary adaptation in physiology and gut digestive properties that reduces dependence on the microbiota for growth and survival. Thus, despite its ancient evolutionary history, the reliance of animal hosts on their microbial partners can be surprisingly flexible and may be relaxed by short-term evolution.
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological, Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/genetics, Animals, Digestion, Directed Molecular Evolution, Drosophila melanogaster/genetics, Drosophila melanogaster/microbiology, Drosophila melanogaster/physiology, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Gene Expression Regulation, Larva/physiology, Phenotype, Signal Transduction, Stress, Physiological, Transcription Factors, Drosophila, adaptation, dFOXO, digestion, experimental evolution, juvenile development, microbiota, nutritional stress
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
09/11/2017 21:34
Last modification date
20/08/2019 13:48
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