Manipulating keratinocyte stem cell proliferation and differentiation using RNA interference


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Manipulating keratinocyte stem cell proliferation and differentiation using RNA interference
Volorio C.
Barrandon Y.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne UNIL - Bugnon Rue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111 CH-1015 Lausanne SUISSE
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REROID:R004857643 ill.
The epidermis, the outermost compartment of the skin, is a stratified and squamous epithelium that constantly self-renews. Keratinocytes, which represent the main epidermal population, are responsible for its cohesion and barrier function. Epidermal renewal necessitates a fine equilibrium between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The keratinocyte stem cell, located in the basal cell layer, is responsible for epidermal homeostasis and regeneration during the wound healing process. The transcription factor p63 structurally belongs to the p53 superfamily. It is expressed in the basal and supra-basal cell layers of stratified epithelia and is thought to be important for the renewal or the differentiation of keratinocyte stem cells (Yang et al., 1999; Mills et al., 1999). In order to better understand its function, we established an in vitro model of p63 deficient human keratinocyte stem cells using a shp63 mediated RNA interference.
Knockdown of endogenous p63 induces downregulation of cell-adhesion genes as previously described (Carroll et al., 2006). Interestingly, the replating of attached p63-knockdown keratinocytes on a feeder layer results in a loss of attachment and proliferation. They are no longer clonogenic. However, if the same population are replated in a fibrin matrix, extended fibrinolysis is reported, a common process in wound healing, suggesting that p63 regulates the fibrinolytic pathway. This result was confirmed by Q-PCR and shows that the urokinase pathway, which mediates fibrinolysis, is upregulated. Altogether, these findings suggest a mechanism in which the fine tuning of p63 expression promotes attachment or release of the keratinocyte stem cell from the basement membrane by inducing genes of adhesion and/or of fibrinolysis. This mechanism may be important for epidermal self-renewal, differentiation as well as wound healing. Its misregulation may be partly responsible for the p63 knockout phenotype.
The downregulation of p63 also induces a decrease in LEKTI expression. LEKTI (lymphoepithelial Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor) is a serine protease inhibitor encoded by the Spink5 gene. It is expressed and secreted in the uppermost differentiated layers of stratified epithelia and plays a role in the desquamation process. When this gene is disrupted, humans develop the Netherton syndrome (Chavanas et al., 2000b). It is a dermatosis characterized by hair dysplasias, ichtyosiform erythroderma and impairment in epidermal barrier function promoting inflammation similarly as in psoriasis with inflammatory infiltrate in excess. TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and EDA1 (ectodysplasin A1) are two transmembraneprecursors that belong to the TNF superfamily, which is involved in immune and inflammation regulation (Smahi et al., 2002). We suggest that the secreted serine protease inhibitor LEKTI plays a role in the regulation of TNFα and EDA1 precursor cleavage and absence of LEKTI induces excess of inflammation. To investigate this hypothesis, we induced downregulation of Spink5 expression in rat keratinocyte stem cells by using a shSpink5 mediated RNA interference approach. Interestingly, expression of TNFα and EDA1 is modified after knockdown of Spink5 by Q-PCR. Moreover, downregulation of Spink5 induces loss of cohesiveness between keratinocytes and colonies adopt a scattered phenotype. Altogether, these preliminary data suggest that downregulation of LEKTI may play a role in the inflammatory response in Netherton syndrome patients, by regulating TNFα expression.
Create date
24/06/2010 11:31
Last modification date
20/08/2019 13:41
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