Photodynamic therapy : a pathway for enhanced delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to tumors


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Photodynamic therapy : a pathway for enhanced delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to tumors
Cheng C.
Ris H.-B.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne UNIL - Bugnon Rue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111 CH-1015 Lausanne SUISSE
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REROID:R005423048 ill.
Abstract Part I :
Background : Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) was designed for the treatment of loco-regional malignancies of the lung. In contrast to intravenous (IV) drug application, ILP allows for a selective administration of cytostatic agents such as doxorubicin to the lung while sparing non-affected tissues. However, the clinical results with ILP were disappointing. Doxorubicinbased ILP on sarcoma rodent lungs suggested high overall doxorubicin concentrations within the perfused lung but a poor penetration of the cytostatic agent into tumors. The same holds true for liposomal-encapsulated macromolecular doxorubicin (LiporubicinTM)
In specific conditions, low-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) can enhance the distribution of macromolecules across the endothelial bamer in solid tumors. It was recently postulated that tumor neovessels were more responsive to PDT than the normal vasculature. We therefore hypothesized that Visudyne®-mediated PDT could selectively increase liposomal doxorubicin (LiporubicinTM) uptake in sarcoma tumors to rodent lungs during intravenous (IV) drug administration and isolated lung perfusion (ILP).
Material and Methods : A sarcoma tumor was generated in the left lung of Fisher rats by subpleural injection of a sarcoma cell ,suspension via thoracotomy. Ten days later, LiporubicinTM is administered IV or by single pass antegrade ILP, with or without Visudyne® -mediated low-dose PDT pre-treatment of the sarcoma bearing lung. The drug concentration and distribution were assessed separately in tumors and lung tissues by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence microscopy (FNI~, respectively.
Results : PDT pretreatment before IV LiporubicinTM administration resulted in a significantly higher tumor drug uptake and tumor to lung drug ratio compared to IV drug injection alone without affecting the blood flow and drug distribution in the lung. PDT pre-treatment before LiporubicinTM-based ILP also resulted in a higher tumor drug uptake and a higher tumor to lung drug ratio compared to ILP alone, however, these differences were not significant due to a heterogeneous blood flow drug distribution during ILP which was further accentuated by PDT.
Conclusions : Low-dose Visudyne®-mediated PDT pre-treatment has the potential to selectively enhance liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin uptake in tumors but not in normal lung tissue after IV drug application in a rat model of sarcoma tumors to the lung which opens new perspectives for the treatment of superficially spreading chemoresistant tumors of the chest cavity such as mesothelioma or malignant effusion. However, the impact of PDT on macromolecular drug uptake during ILP is limited since its therapeutic advantage is circumvented by ILP-induced heterogeneicity of blood flow and drug distribution
Abstract Part II
Background : Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Visudyne® acts by direct cellular phototoxicity and/or by an indirect vascular-mediated effect. Here, we demonstrate that the vessel integrity interruption by PDT can promote the extravasation of a macromolecular agent in normal tissue. To obtain extravasation in normal tissue PDT conditions were one order of magnitude more intensive than the ones in tissue containing neovessels reported in the literature.
Material and Methods : Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D, 2000kDa), a macromolecular agent, was intravenously injected 10 minutes before (LKO group, n=14) or 2 hours (LK2 group, n=16) after Visudyne® mediated PDT in nude mice bearing a dorsal skin fold chamber. Control animals had no PDT (CTRL group, n=8). The extravasation of FITC-D from blood vessels in striated muscle tissue was observed in both groups in real-time for up to 2500 seconds after injection. We also monitored PDT-induced leukocyte rolling in-vivo and assessed, by histology, the corresponding inflammatory reaction score in the dorsal skin fold chambers.
Results : In all animals, at the applied PDT conditions, FITC-D extravasation was significantly enhanced in the PDT treated areas as compared to the surrounding non-treated areas (p<0.0001). There was no FITC-D leakage in the control animals. Animals from the LKO group had significantly less FITC-D extravasation than those from the LK2 group (p = 0.0002). In the LKO group FITC-D leakage correlated significantly with the inflammation (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: At the selected conditions, Visudyne-mediated PDT promotes vascular leakage and FITC-D extravasation into the interstitial space of normal tissue. The intensity of vascular leakage depends on the time interval between PDT and FITC-D injection. This concept could be used to locally modulate the delivery of macromolecules in vivo.
Résumé :
La perfusion cytostatique isolée du poumon permet une administration sélective des agents cytostatiques sans implication de la circulation systémique avec une forte accumulation au niveau du poumon mais une faible pénétration dans les tumeurs. La thérapie photodynamique (PDT) qui consiste en l'application d'un sensibilisateur activé par lumière laser non- thermique d'une longueur d'onde définie permet dans certaines conditions, une augmentation de la pénétration des agents cytostatiques macromoléculaires à travers la barrière endothéliale tumorale.
Nous avons exploré cet avantage thérapeutique de la PDT dans un modèle expérimental afin d'augmenter d'une manière sélective la pénétration tumorale de la doxorubicin pegylée, liposomal- encapsulée macromoléculaire (Liporubicin). Une tumeur sarcomateuse a été générée au niveau du poumon de rongeur suivie d'administration de Liporubicin, soit par voie intraveineuse soit par perfusion isolée du poumon (ILP). Une partie des animaux ont reçus un prétraitement de la tumeur et du poumon sous jacent par PDT avec Visudyne comme photosensibilisateur.
Les résultats ont démontrés que la PDT permet, sous certaines conditions, une augmentation sélective de Liporubicin dans les tumeurs mais pas dans le parenchyme pulmonaire sous jacent. Après administration intraveineuse de Liporubicin et prétraitement par PDT, l'accumulation dans les tumeurs était significative par rapport au poumon, et aux tumeurs sans PDT. Le même phénomène est observé après ILP du poumon. Cependant, les différences avec ou sans PDT n'étaient pas significatives lié à und distribution hétérogène de Liporubicin dans le poumon perfusé après ILP.
Dans une deuxième partie de l'expérimentation, nous avons exploré la microscopie intra-vitale pour déterminer l'extravasion des substances macromoléculaires (FITS) à travers la barrière endothéliale avec ou sans Visudyne-PDT au niveau des chambres dorsales des souris nues. Les résultats montrent qu'après PDT, l'extravasion de FITS a été augmentée de manière significative par rapport au tissu non traité. L'intensité de l'extravasion de FITS dépendait également de l'intervalle entre PDT et injection de FITS.
En conclusion, les expérimentations montrent que la PDT est capable, sous certaines conditions, d'augmenter de manière significative l'extravasion des macromolécules à travers la barrière endothéliale et leur accumulation dans des tumeurs mais pas dans le parenchyme pulmonaire. Ces résultats permettent une nouvelle perspective de traitement pour des tumeurs superficielles intrathoraciques chimio-résistent comme l'épanchement pleural malin ou le mésothéliome pleural.
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07/06/2010 15:42
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20/08/2019 13:26
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