COVID-19 and lung cancer: risks, mechanisms and treatment interactions.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_03895CF65905
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
COVID-19 and lung cancer: risks, mechanisms and treatment interactions.
Journal
Journal for immunotherapy of cancer
Author(s)
Addeo A., Obeid M., Friedlaender A.
ISSN
2051-1426 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
2051-1426
Publication state
Published
Issued date
05/2020
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
8
Number
1
Pages
e000892
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to rise worldwide. To date, there is no effective treatment. Clinical management is largely symptomatic, with organ support in intensive care for critically ill patients. The first phase I trial to test the efficacy of a vaccine has recently begun, but in the meantime there is an urgent need to decrease the morbidity and mortality of severe cases. It is known that patients with cancer are more susceptible to infection than individuals without cancer because of their systemic immunosuppressive state caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments. Therefore, these patients might be at increased risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 could in some case induce excessive and aberrant non-effective host immune responses that are associated with potentially fatal severe lung injury and patients can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Cytokine release syndrome and viral ARDS result from uncontrolled severe acute inflammation. Acute lung injury results from inflammatory monocyte and macrophage activation in the pulmonary luminal epithelium which lead to a release of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These cytokines play a crucial role in immune-related pneumonitis, and could represent a promising target when the infiltration is T cell predominant or there are indirect signs of high IL-6-related inflammation, such as elevated C-reactive protein. A monoclonal anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab has been administered in a number of cases in China and Italy. Positive clinical and radiological outcomes have been reported. These early findings have led to an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial in China and Italy. While data from those trials are eagerly awaited, patients' management will continue to rely for the vast majority on local guidelines. Among many other aspects, this crisis has proven that different specialists must join forces to deliver the best possible care to patients.
Keywords
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use, Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use, Betacoronavirus, Clinical Trials as Topic, Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy, Coronavirus Infections/etiology, Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control, Humans, Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use, Interleukin-6/metabolism, Lung/pathology, Lung Neoplasms/complications, Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy, Lung Neoplasms/virology, Neoplasms/virology, Pandemics/prevention & control, Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy, Pneumonia, Viral/etiology, Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control, Risk Factors, T-Lymphocytes, immunity, lung neoplasms
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
14/06/2020 19:40
Last modification date
17/02/2021 7:28
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